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THE MASK PROJECT:

 

The purpose of this project is to raise awareness among community members regarding health hazards of road dust (PM10/2.5) inhalation, reduce health risk behaviors related to PM10/2.5 inhalation, and reduce behaviors that cause PM10/2.5 air distributions in a rural community of Costa Rica. With most roads unpaved, this rural area of Costa Rica, in the province of Puntarenas, can be particularly intolerable, especially during the  6 month dry season, becasause it is common for car, motorcycle, and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) traffic to stir up significant amounts of dust (PM10/2.5) into the air. It is common to see dust clouds everywhere with a large percentage of the population not covering their faces to prevent inhalation. With information about the health hazards associated with PM10/2.5 inhalation at their disposal, individuals can regularly protect themselves through the use of dust masks and other measures. By David Brookshire

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Particulate Matter (PM10) Health Hazard Prevention and Awareness in Rural Costa Rica

PUH 6002

Spring/Summer 2014

David Brookshire

 

Table of Contents

Abstract...........................................................................................................................................3

Purpose of the Project...................................................................................................................4

Literature Review...........................................................................................................................5

Techniques / Methods Used By the Student................................................................................9

Outcomes / Results of The Project..............................................................................................10

Lessons Learned / Conclusions /Commentary...........................................................................11

References.....................................................................................................................................15

Apendix 1: Surveys......................................................................................................................17

Appendix 2: Lesson Plans...........................................................................................................25

Appendix 3: Campaign Poster.......................................................................Separate Document

Appendix 4: Campaign Parent Presentation...............................................Separate Document

 

Abstract

Purpose of the Project: The purpose of this project is to raise awareness among community members regarding health hazards of road dust (PM10) inhalation, reduce health risk behaviors related to PM10 inhalation, and reduce behaviors that cause PM10/air distributions in a rural community of Costa Rica. With most roads unpaved, this rural area of Costa Rica, in the province of Puntarenas, can be particularly intolerable, especially during the  6 month dry season, becasause it is common for car, motorcycle, and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) traffic to stir up significant amounts of dust (PM10) into the air. It is common to see dust clouds everywhere with a large percentage of the population not covering their faces to prevent inhalation. With information about the health hazards associated with PM10 inhalation at their disposal, individuals can regularly protect themselves through the use of dust masks and other measures. Literature Review: According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, health problems associated with dust exposure include: lung tissue damage, aggravation of existing heart and lung disease, as well exacerbation of asthmatic symptoms especially among children and elderly (Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (ADEC), 2014). Also, dust inhalation can give rise to respiratory disease and irritation of eyes, ears, throat, nose, and skin with symptoms being more prevalent among asthmatics and those diagnosed with allergies (Occupational Health and Safety Association of Australia.(OHSA), 2014). Fortunately, some solutions are available to individuals to help mediate the health hazards associated with dust exposure. Techniques / Methods Used By the Student: A convenience sample (N=82) of participants residing in the local community of Santa Teresa of Cobano, Puntarenas, Costa Rica were given an anonymous survey to assess local attitudes and beliefs regarding the presence of health risks related to road dust (PM10). Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized in order to demonstrate the need of the community for intervention related to road dust (PM10) exposure while simultaneously raising awareness regarding the issue. Outcomes / Results of The Project: Because a sizable portion of the community self-reported to not be engages in self-protective behaviors regarding road dust inhalation and 100% of respondents indicated that they believe the health of members of the local community can be improved by reducing road dust (PM10) exposure, an awareness campaign was created for students and families of Hermosa Valley School as well as the community members at large. Lessons Learned / Conclusions /Commentary: Arming individuals with tools they can utilize to limit or prevent health risks associated with PM 10 exposure, will be significantly beneficial to the community as the tourism industry and traffic problems grow here. Eventually, hopefully municipal funds will be allocated to pave more roads.

 

Purpose of the Project

            The purpose of this project is to raise awareness among community members regarding health hazards of road dust (PM10) inhalation, reduce health risk behaviors related to PM10 inhalation, and reduce behaviors that cause PM10/air distributions in a rural community of Costa Rica.  With the worst roads in Central America (Font 2014), this rural area of Costa Rica, in the province of Puntarenas, can be particularly intolerable, especially during the dry season, which lasts from November until April. During the dry season, it is common for car, motorcycle, and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) traffic to stir up significant amounts of dust (PM10) into the air. It is common to see dust clouds everywhere and dust even settles on tables and grocery store shelves (Seminara 2013).  This is due to the complete lack of rain coupled with unpaved roads.  With many individuals riding motorcycles, ATV's and riding bikes or walking, this dust is regularly inhaled by many members of the population, including small children. This problem has become such a concern for some parents and community members on the southern tip of the Nicoya Peninsula, that a documentary entitled Pave the Road is currently being produced (Mason 2014) in order to raise awareness and funding for pavement in order to help alleviate this issue.  Until local government allocates resources or private funding is collected however, it is within the scope of this project to arm individuals with simple tools and awareness in order to prevent health problems associated with PM 10 exposure as well as reduce behavior that may contribute to increased exposure. By informing children, parents, and community members about the health hazards associated with PM10 inhalation, individuals can regularly protect themselves through the use of dust masks.

            The literature and available resources regarding PM10 inhalation can be organized into primarily three categories: potential health risks, individual protection, and community/municipal dust control (Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (ADEC), 2013). While need for dust control is generally calculated by measuring the amount of dust matter (PM10) in the air, this is not practiced in  this community in Costa Rica. Furthermore, health data is difficult to obtain due to lack of surveillance and minimal access to health care. Lack of surveillance and measurement, however, does not negate community need. One only has to stand on the road or take a picture during traffic to realize the significant amount of dust present in this environment. For the purpose of this project, need has been demonstrated and established through the administration of an anonymous survey given to community members living in the local area on the southern Nicoya Peninsula. In terms of anecdotal evidence, the director of the local community clinic has admitted that dust exposure and related health hazards are a problem in the local region (Quesada, 2013). In terms of PM10 exposure in the world at large, the majority of efforts focus on municipal control of the problem. Because that approach is beyond the scope of this project, efforts will focus on individuals with the hopes of municipal solutions to come in the near future.

Literature Review

            Particulate matter (PM) is defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Airtrends, 1995) as solid or liquid particles found in the air large enough to be seen either by the naked eye or a microscope. PM can originate from a variety of sources including both chemical and physical and can range in size. PM10, the finest in diameter, measures 10 micrometers or less and can cause a variety of health problems due to its ability to reach lower areas of the respiratory tract (Airtrends, 1995). These problems can include “effects on breathing and respiratory systems, damage to lung tissue, cancer, and premature death (Airtrends, 1995).” One source of PM10, and the focus of this project, is road dust. Road dust is more prevalent in rural areas where pavement is less common. According to Mar et al. (2004), PM10 exposure has been linked to an increase in cough and sputum production in children and adults. Other health risks related to PM10 inhalation, especially in the long term, can include lung cancer (Raaschou-Nielson, 2014), as well brain damage and neurodegenerative diseases (Calderon -Garciduenas, 2002). Clearly a public health concern, it is important to reduce chronic exposure to such pollutants.

            In addition to the aforementioned health risks, there is additional evidence present in the literature that indicates the health effects of road dust (PM 10) exposure.  According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, health problems associated with dust exposure include: lung tissue damage, aggravation of existing heart and lung disease, as well exacerbation of asthmatic symptoms especially among children and elderly (Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (ADEC), 2014). Furthermore, a study published in the European Respiratory Journey  by Penttinen et al. (2001) showed a negative correlation between PM10 exposure and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in adult populations, thus demonstrating a burden on respiratory function. The European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE Project) summarized the health effects of road dust at a symposium in Stockholm in 2010. Studies by multiple presenters illustrated the health effects to be respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, potentially increased risk in mortality, and presence of endotoxins (soil bacteria) within road dust (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), 2010). In Iceland, researchers found positive correlation between PM10 exposure and the dispensing of asthma medication  and a positive correlation between PM10 exposure and Angina Pectoris medication dispensing (Boovarsdottir & Siguroardottir, 2013).  Finally, Occupational Health & Services Australia (OHSA) indicates that dust inhalation can give rise to respiratory disease and irritation of eyes, ears, throat, nose, and skin with symptoms being more prevalent among asthmatics and those diagnosed with allergies (Occupational Health and Safety Association of Australia.(OHSA), 2014). It is clear from reviewing the literature that, health hazards related to dust inhalation and exposure have been well established worldwide.

            While health risks associated with PM10 exposure have been established, very few intervention campaigns have been tailored towards arming individuals with knowledge and resources in order to protect themselves, especially in the United States. One anomaly, however, is the state of Alaska where the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) has developed a public health campaign and school curriculum materials regarding the health hazards and self protection options related to road dust exposure. Due to the vast amount of rural areas within the state and therefore, the lack of pavement and appropriated funds, their campaign educates the population so they may prevent some of the health hazards, themselves.  Alaska's program explains to community members why dust exposure can be a concern based on data from the EPA. They also inform people of the causes and sources of dust as well as how it its presence is measured. With this information as well as the health risks presented, individuals are encouraged to control their speed on dirt roads while also being urged to wear a dust mask that covers their nose and mouth.  Community members are also encouraged to report dust concerns to the local government (Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (ADEC), 2014). Accompanying these efforts is a school curriculum designed to educate children so that they may be aware of the dust problem and encourage their parents to help them be protected from the health risks (Qagan, 2012). Due to the comprehensive nature of the ADEC's efforts, their campaign will be utilized as a model for this project in my local community in rural Costa Rica.

            In terms of personal protection, some solutions are available to individuals to help mediate the health hazards associated with dust exposure. For example, it is recommended that controlling one's speed can reduce the amount of dust in the air and, therefore, the associated risks (Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (ADEC), 2014).  Another inexpensive option is water. It is suggested by the ADEC (2014) that by watering the road in front of their respective home or business, community members can reduce the amount of airborne dust created by traffic. The downside to this approach, of course, is that water can dry quickly and would require frequent application not to mention the fact that this is a relatively dry climate and water is often quite scarce. One approach taken in this rural community of Costa Rica, is the application of molasses onto the road. According to local convention, this approach is effective for approximately 3 months before requiring re-application. One negative aspect to this option is cost as it can be $500 to $600 per application according to local community members. Because the amount of one molasses application could equate to a local worker's monthly salary, this is a luxury many cannot afford. While water, molasses, or other chemical additives, may reduce the amount of airborne particles, it is unlikely that these efforts would cover the entirety of public roads, in addition to the fact that they are not sustainable, and therefore do not offer complete protection from pm10 exposure. Furthermore, while this approach does aid in reducing airborne particles, it is outside of the realm of personal control. In other words, an individual wishing to efficiently reduce exposure for herself or her family cannot control the actions of others. Therefore, personal face protection in the form of a dust mask can be a reasonable choice in assisting people in reducing the health affects of pm10 exposure. When properly sealed around the nose and mouth, face masks have been shown to reduce the number of adverse cardiovascular events associated with air pollution (Langrish et al., 2009). Also, face masks have been shown to diminish heavy metal exposure present in particulate matter (Singh et al., 2010). Also according to the World Health Organization (WHO), efficient face masks can filter particles smaller than 2.5 mcgs when tightly sealed around the nose and mouth (Azzizi, 2011). With a combined community effort through the use of various techniques, airborne pm10 and associated health hazards can be reduced.

            Thirdly, municipal controls can be put in place to reduce pm10 exposure. Measurement and monitoring are reactive approaches that can then be utilized to warn the public. Otherwise, chemical application to dirt roads or pavement are options to reduce the amount of airborne particles. The ADEC offers other options such as gravel and road design as other choices as well. Because these solutions are expensive, it is unlikely to conclude, especially in rural Costa Rica, that they will be employed in the near future. As a result, the aim of this project will focus on arming individuals with awareness and tools in order to reduce their own exposure to road dust.

 

Techniques / Methods Used By the Student

            Participants who live in the towns of Santa Teresa, Mal Pais, and surrounding areas in the county of Cobano in the Puntarenas province of Costa Rica are the beneficiaries of this project. A convenience sample (N=82) of participants were given an anonymous survey to assess local attitudes and beliefs regarding the presence of health risks related to road dust (PM10). Parents of Hermosa Valley School were given a paper survey to complete and return to school. Other community members were “distributed” a digital Google Drive version of the same survey via a local Facebook community page. This self-administered anonymous survey attempted to identify opinions regarding the presence of road dust, identify complaints regarding health risks associated with road dust, and measure behavior regarding protection from road dust (PM10) exposure. Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized in order to demonstrate the need of the community for intervention related to road dust (PM10) exposure while simultaneously raising awareness regarding the issue. These data have driven the need for an education and awareness campaign created as part of this project.

            A convenience sample (N=82) of 82 local residents was utilized for the survey (Appendix A). 52 (63.4%) of the participants responded digitally via Facebook while 30 (36%)completed the paper version of the survey. Of the 52 digital respondents, 35 (42.7%) completed the English version while 22 (26.8%) completed the Spanish version. Of the 30 paper-based respondents, 8 (9.8%) were English speaking and 22 (26.8%) were Spanish speaking. In terms of transportation, 54 (65.9%) participants utilized a method other than automobile as their main mode of transit such as ATV (34.1%) , motorcycle (13.4%) or bicycle (18.4%). An automobile such as a car, truck, or SUV was utilized by 28 (34.1%) of the respondents. Of these 82 participants, 56 (68.3%) reported that they came in direct contact with road dust (PM10) three or more times daily.

            In regards to self-protective behavior and health complaints, the following data were obtained. When asked how often they cover their face to avoid breathing in road dust during dry season, 40 (48.8%) respondents indicated that they regularly cover their face, while 42 (51.2%) indicated that they do not cover their face to prevent inhalation of road dust. When asked how often they cover their child's face, 34 (41.5%) indicated that they regularly do so while 22 (26.8%) indicated that they do not cover their child's face in order to prevent inhalation of road dust (PM10). This survey item was not applicable for 26 (31.7%) of the participants. When participants were asked if they or their children have experienced tightness of chest, wheezing, or difficulty breathing, especially during the dry season, 43 (52.4%) indicated a “yes” response and 39 (47.6%) indicated a “no” response. When asked, if they believe the road dust poses a problem or potential problem to the health of themselves or their family, 79 (96.3%) provided a “yes” response with only 3 (3.7%) indicating a “no” response. And finally, when asked if they believe the health of members of the local community can be improved by reducing road dust (PM10) exposure, 100% (82) of participants indicated a “yes” response.

 

Outcomes / Results of The Project

Based on the data obtained from the survey, it is clear that road dust (PM10) is a problem in the community surrounding Santa Teresa of Cobano, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. With more than half of respondents (52.4%) indicating the presence of symptoms related to PM10 exposure, it is clear that the community would benefit from protective measures as a result of this campaign. Also, with more than half of respondents indicating that they do not cover their own or their children's faces, awareness of the issue would likely benefit them. This is especially pertinent because almost two thirds (65.9%) of participants reported that their main mode of transportation is an ATV, motorcycle, or bicycle leaving them especially vulnerable to the health risks associated with road dust. Furthermore, with 56 (68.3%) of survey respondents reporting that they have children, an intervention directed towards students, as well as parents, will be highly beneficial. Therefore results of this project will include a public health awareness poster campaign highlighting health hazards and protection options given to the public clinic in Cobano, a parent presentation for members of Hermosa Valley School, as well as one week of lesson plans to be delivered in science classes at Hermosa Valley School for all grades, pre-Kindergarten through 6th grade. This approach will foster awareness among adult community members with and without children as well as increase the consciousness of children regarding the health hazards of road dust and measures that can be taken in order for them to self-advocate for prevention.

Lessons Learned / Conclusions /Commentary

 

            With visibility sometimes limited to a few feet due to the sizable clouds of dust on the road, especially, during the 6 month dry season, one can quickly understand the need for public health intervention in this rural community of Costa Rica. As the tourism industry continues to grow here, one can be hopeful that the roads will eventually be paved. In the mean time, arming individuals with tools they can utilize to limit or prevent health risks associated with PM 10 exposure, will be significantly beneficial to the community. As children are exposed to tools, they can remind their parents to employ safe practices such as covering their faces while riding through high traffic areas. As children grow with the community, it is hopeful that so too will behaviors aimed at protecting one's self and preventing health hazards from PM10 exposure. It is clear to this author, as a result of this project, that lack of resources available to measure public health hazards does not negate public health need. Observing the community,surveying the community, and engaging in meaningful dialogue with the community can be very helpful in gaining insights that will be advantageous to all.

Next Steps

            While resources and availability of data were scarce for this project, community needs were identified and met. It is suggested, that moving forward, additional steps be taken in order to further the efforts initiated in this program planning project. Identification of soil type and composition would further understanding regarding specific hazards related to PM10 inhalation withing this local community. Furthermore, it would be beneficial, to those with limited financial means, to distribute dust masks rated for proper protection of PM10 inhalation. Through a grant or donations from local businesses, masks could be distributed from the clinic and/or schools. Additionally, the local and federal governments could continue to be petitioned in order to provide more pavement to this growing community. Within the scope of this program, a public awareness poster is being distributed to the local school and clinic urging individuals to wear a mask, citing the hazards associated with PM10 inhalation. Furthermore, a “Road Dust Awareness Week” is planned for the beginning of the school year at Hermosa Valley School and will include a week of lesson plans to engage students at all grade levels. In addition to lessons and activities, a parent presentation is planned in order to inform parents of the program while simultaneously raising their awareness of the health hazards of PM10 inhalation for themselves and their children. Action points are suggested in order assist them in protecting themselves. This program can be repeated yearly or bi-yearly in order to maintain awareness and teach new students self-advocacy skills on an ongoing basis. Through these continued efforts, local community members will be armed with tools in which they have control regardless of decisions made my the government regarding pavement of the roads.

 

References

Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (ADEC). (2013). Dust and Potential Health Problems. 11 June 2013. Retrieved from https://dec.alaska.gov/air/anpms/doc-anpms/w13NOV06-Dust&Health.pdf

Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (ADEC). (2014). Top Ten Dust Control Techniques. Retrieved from http://dec.alaska.gov/air/anpms/Dust/topten_dustctrl2.htm#Reducingthetraffic

Airtrends (1995). PM-10. Retrieved from www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd95/pm10.html

Azizi, Mohammad Hossein. (2011). Impact of Traffic Related Air Pollution on Public Health: A             Real Challenge. Archives of Iranian Medicine. Volume 14. Number 2. March 2011.

Boovarsdottir, Anna Rosa & Siguroardottir, Arny. (2012). Air Quality in Reykjavik, Road Dust, Mitigating Measures and Health Impact Assessment. City of Reykjavik. 2012.

Calderon -Garciduenas, Lilian. Et al. (2002). Air Pollution and Brain Damage. Toxicology Pathology. Vol 30. no 3.pp 373–389.2002.

European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). (2010). Health Effects of Road Dust. Short Summary of Presentations. Retrieved from http://www.escapeproject.eu/index.php

Font, Alberto. (2014). Costa Ricans Continue Paying High Gas Prices But Have The Worst Roads In Central America. The Tico Times. 4 June 2014. Retrieved from http://www.ticotimes.net/2014/06/04/costa-ricans-continue-paying-high-gas-prices-but-have-the-worst-roads-in-central-america

Langrish, Jeremy P. Et al. (2009). Beneficial Cardiovascular Effects of Reducing Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution with a Simple Face Mask. Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 6:8. 2009. Retrieved from http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/6/1/8

Mar, Therese, F. et al. (2004). An Analysis of the Association Between Respiratory Symptoms in Subjects with Asthma and Daily Air Pollution in Spokane, Washington. Inhalation Toxicology. 16:809–815. 1 June 2004.

Mason, Kelly (2014). Pave the Road. Retrieved from http://www.pavetheroad.net/

Occupational Health and Safety Association of Australia. (OHSA). (2014). Dust Monitoring. Retrieved from http://www.ohsa.com.au/

Penttinen P. Et al. (2001) Number concentration and size of particles in urban air: effects on spirometriclung function in adult asthmatic subjects. Environmental Health Perspectives. 109:319‐323.

Qagan Tayagungin Tribe. (2012). Curriculum for Grades K-6. Environmental Department. Retrieved from http://www.qttribe.org/index.asp?Type=NONE&SEC=%7B1BE73A61-68DD-49B9-BAB7-B6149094BFA0%7D

Quesada, Jose Fabio. (Personal communication, April 9, 2014). Medical Doctor and Clinc Director.

Raaschou-Nielson, Ole. Et al. (2013). Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Lancet Oncology. 2013 Aug; 14 (9): 813-22.

Seminara, Dave. (2013). In a Costa Rican Beach Town, The Road Less Paved. The New York Times. 5 September 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/08/travel/in-a-costa-rican-beach-town-the-road-less-paved.html?_r=0

Singh, M. P. (2010). Face Mask Application as a Tool to Diminish the Particulate Matter Mediated  Heavy Metal Exposure Among Citizens of Lucknow, India. Science of the Total Environment. Volume 408. Issue 23. Pages 5732-5728. November 2010.

 

Apendix 1: Surveys

Hello Parents!

I teach English here at Hermosa Valley School and am also conducting a Public Health Project regarding the ever present road dust in our area. Please take the time to fill out this 5 minute survey and know that you are contributing to progress regarding this issue. Thank you so much for your valuable time!

Sincerely,

David Brookshire

Please answer all questions by circling your response. PLEASE RETURN WITHIN 3 DAYS.

1. How many months per year do you live in the Santa Teresa/Mal Pais/Cobano/Montezuma area?

  3 months

 3 to 6 months

 Full time

2. How long have you lived in this area?

  Less than 1 year

 1 to 3 years

 3 to 5 years

 More than 5 years

3. How many children do you have?

  1

 2

 3 or more

 0

4. How old is your first child?

 2 years old or yournger

 3 to 5

 5 to 10

 10 or older

 Not Applicable

 

5. How old is your second child?

 2 years old or younger

 3 to 5

 5 to 10

 10 or older

 Not Applicable

6. How old is your third child?

 2 years old or younger

 3 to 5

 5 to 10

 10 or older

 Not Apllicable

7. What is you main mode of local transportation?

  Quad

 Motorcycle

 Car, Truck, or SUV

 Bicycle

 Walking

8. How often do you come in direct contact with road dust during the dry season?

  3 or more times daily

 1 or 2 times daily

 Only once or twice per week

 Not at all

9. How often do you cover your face to avoid breathing in road dust during the dry season?

  Regularly. Almost every time I come in contact with road dust.

 Usually

 Rarely

 Never

10. How often is your child’s face covered to protect from breathing road dust during the dry season?

 Regularly. Almost every time I come in contact with road dust.

 Usually

 Rarely

 Never

11. Have you or your child developed an unexplained or persistent cough since living in this area, especially during the dry season?

  Yes

 No

12. Do you or your child sometimes have difficulty breathing, especially during the dry season?

  Yes

 No

13. Have you or your child been diagnosed with asthma?

  Yes

 No

14. Have you or your child experienced tightness of chest, wheezing, or difficulty breathing since living in this area, especially during the dry season.

  Yes

 NO

15. Have you or your child been diagnosed with a respiratory infection since living in this area?

  Yes

 No

16. Do you or your child have outdoor allergies?

  Yes

 No

17. Do you or your child ever complain of unexplained headaches, especially during the dry season?

  Yes

 No

 

18. Do you or your child have sinusitis or get sinus infections since living in this area, especially during the dry season?

  Yes

 No

19. Do you believe the road dust poses a problem or potential problem to the health of you or your family?

  Yes

 No

20. Do you believe the road dust contributes to health problem in this community, especially during the dry season?

  Yes

 No

21. Do you believe individuals regularly exposed to large amounts of road dust may be at risk for health problems?

  Yes

 No

22. Do you believe the health of members of this community can be improved by reducing road dust exposure?

 Yes

 No

23. How fast do you usually drive?

Less than 25 kph

More than 25 kph

24. Do you believe that reducing the driving speed of vehicles on the road would reduce the amount of dust in the air?

Yes

No

 

  • Questions, Comments, or Concerns?

Camino Encuesta Polvo

Hola Padres!

Enseño Inglés aquí en Hermosa Valley y estoy llevando a cabo un proyecto de salud pública con respecto a la siempre presente el polvo del camino en nuestra área. Por favor, tómese el tiempo para llenar esta encuesta de 5 minutos y saber que estás contribuyendo al progreso con respecto a este tema. Muchas gracias por su valioso tiempo!

Atentamente,

David Brookshire

Por favor conteste todas las preguntas marcando con un círculo su respuesta. Por favor devuelva el plazo de 3 días.

1. ¿Cuántos meses al año es lo que vive en el área de Santa Teresa / Mal Pais / Cobano / Montezuma ?

  3 meses

 3 a 6 meses

 todo el año

2. ¿Cuánto tiempo ha vivido en esta área ?

  Menos de 1 año

 1 a 3 años

 3 a 5 años

 Más de 5 años

3. ¿Cuántos hijos tienes ?

  1

 2

 3 o más

 0

4. ¿Qué edad tiene su primer hijo?

  2 años de edad o menos

 3 a 5

 5 a 10

 10 años de edad o más viejos

 No applicable

5. ¿Qué edad tiene su segundo hijo?

  2 años de edad o menos

 3 a 5

 5 a 10

 10 años de edad o más viejos

 No aplicable

6. ¿Qué edad tiene su tercer hijo ?

  2 años de edad o menos

 3 a 5

 5 a 10

 10 años de edad o más viejos

 No aplicable

7. ¿Cuál es su principal medio de transporte local?

  Cuad

 Moto

 El carro, camión, o 4x4

 Bicicleta

 Para caminar

8. ¿Con qué frecuencia entra en contacto directo con el polvo del camino durante la estación seca?

  3 o más veces al día

 1 o 2 veces al día

 Sólo una vez o dos veces por semana

 Nada

9. ¿Con qué frecuencia se cubre la cara para evitar la inhalación de polvo de la carretera durante la estación seca ?

  Regularmente. Casi cada vez que entran en contacto con el polvo del camino.

 En general

 Raramente

 Nunca

10. ¿Con qué frecuencia está el rostro de su hijo cubierto para protegerlo de respirar el polvo del

camino durante la estación seca ?

 Regularmente. Casi cada vez que entran en contacto con el polvo del camino.

 En general

 Raramente

 Nunca

11. ¿Usted o su hijo desarrolló una tos inexplicable , ya que viven en esta area especialmente durante la estación seca?

  Sí

 No

12. ¿Usted o su hijo a veces tiene dificultad para respirar especialmente durante la estación seca ?

  Sí

 No

13. ¿Usted o su hijo han diagnosticado asma?

  Sí

 No

14. ¿Usted o su hijo experimentado opresión en el pecho , sibilancias o dificultad para respirar , ya que viven en esta area especialmente durante la estación seca?

  Sí

 No

15. ¿Usted o su hijo han diagnosticado una infección respiratoria ya que estar en esta área?

  Sí

 No

16. ¿Tiene usted o su hijo tiene alergias ambientales?

  Sí

 No

17. ¿Usted o su niño alguna vez se queja de dolores de cabeza especialmente durante la estación seca?

  Sí

 No

18. ¿Tiene usted o su hijo tiene sinusitis o infecciones de los senos conseguir ya que estar en esta area especialmente durante la estación seca?

  Sí

 No

19. ¿Cree usted que el polvo del camino constituye un problema o posible problema para la salud de usted o su familia?

  Sí

 No

20. ¿Crees que el polvo de la carretera contribuye al problema de salud en esta comunidad especialmente durante la estación seca?

  Sí

 No

21. ¿Cree usted que las personas expuestas regularmente a grandes cantidades de polvo de las carreteras pueden estar en riesgo de problemas de salud?

  Sí

 No

22. ¿Cree usted que la salud de los miembros de esta comunidad se puede mejorar mediante la reducción de la exposición al polvo de carreteras ?

  Sí

 No

23. ¿ Lo rápido que sueles conducir?

A menos de 25 kilómetros por hora

Más de 25 kilómetros por hora

24. ¿Usted cree que la reducción de la velocidad de conducción de vehículos en la carretera reduciría la cantidad de polvo en el aire?

No

25. Preguntas, comentarios o preocupaciones?

 

Appendix 2: Lesson Plans

Road Dust Lesson 1 Lesson Plan

Date:                                  Subject:    Science                           Grade:1-6

Goals/Objectives/Standards: Students will be able to define and discuss dust and road dust.

Time

5 minutes

 

Opening/Framing the Lesson/Introduction

Discussion: Who can tell me something about road dust?

Guided Questions:

How often and when do you see dust in the air?

What causes dust to become airborne?

How does it make you feel when you breath in a lot of road dust?

Lecture: Teacher defines particulate matter and discusses the presence of road dust in the community.

Monitor/Feedback

 

 

Teacher guides the discussion and monitors for full class engagement ensuring that all students are making real-life connections regarding their experience with road dust exposure.

15 minutes

Activity

Students create a poster depicting a time when they recently came in contact with road dust.

Students include a description/definition of road dust/particulate matter.

Students include a visual depiction of how they feel about road dust.

 

Teacher circulates the classroom asking students to tell about their posters as they are being created.

10 minutes

Closing

Students present and explain their posters to the class.

Teacher includes summary of particulate matter/road dust definition and its presence in the community.

 

Homework

Students interview a parent regarding their opinions regarding road dust with the following questions.

1.What causes road dust?

2.Do you like road dust?

3.How does it make you feel when you breath in road dust?

 

 

Road Dust Lesson 2 Lesson Plan

Date:                                  Subject:    Science                           Grade:1-6

Goals/Objectives/Standards: Students will be able to list and describe the health risks/hazards related to road dust exposure.

Time

5 minutes

Opening/Framing the Lesson/Introduction

Discussion: Has anyone ever experienced difficulty breathing, coughing, wheezing, tightness of chest?

Guided Questions:

What does it feel like when it is difficult to breathe?

Does it feel good or bad?

Have you or anyone you know ever felt this way after breathing in road dust?

Have you or anyone you know ever had to see a doctor because of breathing problems?

Lecture: Teacher defines asthma, summarizing symptoms and explaining that scientific studies have shown that breathing in road dust/particulate matter can cause these symptoms and make them worse.

Monitor/Feedback

 

 

Teacher guides the discussion and monitors for full class engagement ensuring that all students are making real-life connections regarding their experience with symptoms related to road dust exposure.

15 minutes

Activity

Students write a paragraph describing an experience discussed above such as visiting the doctor with respiratory symptoms. If they don't have their own direct experience or know of someone who has experienced respiratory symptoms and been seen by a doctor, they can create their own story.

 

Teacher circulates the classroom asking students to tell about their paragraphs as they are being written.

10 minutes

Closing

Teacher summarizes health hazards lecture and highlights student work.

 

Homework

Students interview a parent regarding the health effects of  road dust exposure with the following questions:

Do you or anyone you know have asthma or breathing problems?

Has anyone you know had to see a doctor because they experienced difficulty breathing or tightness in their chest?

Do you think road dust can cause these problems and/or make them worse?

 

Road Dust Lesson 3 and 4 Lesson Plan

Date:                                  Subject:    Science                           Grade:1-6

Goals/Objectives/Standards: Students will be able to list and describe preventative practices in order to reduce the health risks associated with road dust exposure and be able to advocate for assistance in protecting themselves.

Time

10 minutes

Opening/Framing the Lesson/Introduction

Discussion 1: Students report the results of their two nights of parent interviews (homework) and share with the class.

Discussion 2: Have you seen anyone do anything to prevent road dust or the health problems related to inhalation of road dust?

Guided Questions:

What can you and your family do to prevent inhalation of road dust?

What can community members do to prevent others from breathing in road dust?

What could the local government do to prevent road dust?

Lecture: Teacher explains ways to prevent health problems related to road dust exposure at the individual, community, and government levels. These include:

  • wear a dust mask when traveling on a quad, motorcycle, or bicycle.

  • Encourage community members to water the road or apply molasses in front of their homes and businesses.

  • Petition the local and national government to pave the road.

Monitor/Feedback

 

Teacher guides the discussion and monitors for full class engagement and prompts students when necessary.

30 minutes

Activity

Students are separated into 3 groups. Group 1 will create a skit teaching others how to advocate appropriately to their parents to provide them with protective face gear before they are exposed to dust. Group 2 creates a skit teaching others how to advocate appropriately to community members to please apply molasses or water to the road in front of their house or business. Group 3 writes a letter to the government highlighting the reasons to pave the roads and recites to the class.

 

Teacher circulates the classroom asking students to tell about their paragraphs as they are being written.

 

Teacher may choose to video record the final results of the activity.

10 minutes

Closing

Teacher summarizes preventative measures discussed in the lecture and activities as well as the week's lessons.

 

 

Homework

Share with parents what they've learned and ask to wear a mask or face covering when exposed to road dust.

 

 

 

 

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